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Hyperinflation Ungarn 1945-1946

Die Situation in Ungarn 1945
Mit dem Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges zog sich die deutsche Armee auch aus Ungarn zurück. Das Land wurde jedoch nicht autonom, sondern es wurde von der Roten Armee besetzt, die von einer Übergangsregierung geleitet wurde. Allerdings kamen die Soldaten aus Russland nicht ausschließlich als Freude. Sie vergewaltigten Frauen und deportierten ungarische Männer nach Russland. Hinzu kamen hohe finanzielle Belastungen aus den Kriegen, die sich auf etwa 40 Prozent des nationalen Vermögens beliefen. Der Aufbau der Wirtschaft gestaltete sich ebenfalls schwierig, denn zahlreiche Brücken über die Donau und die Theiss waren zerstört, die Landwirtschaft verlor während des Krieges etwa 50 Prozent an Maschinen und Vieh. Bereits hier nahm die Inflation in Ungarn ihren Anfang, denn Waren und Güter wurden knapp, so dass die Preise immer weiter in die Höhe schossen.

Die Inflation
Vor dem Einmarsch russischer Truppen war der größte Schein in Ungarn der 1.000 Pengö-Schein. Im November 1945 jedoch musste die Notenbank bereits den ersten Schein mit einer Million Pengö drucken. Noch während der Inflation fanden im November 1945 Wahlen in Ungarn statt. Hierbei gewann die Kleinlandwirtepartei etwa 57 Prozent aller Stimmen. Sie leitete eine wichtige Bodenreform ein, bei der Großgrundbesitzer enteignet und das Land an kleine Bauern und Familien vergeben wurde. Diese konnten nun selbst für ihren Lebensunterhalt sorgen. Allerdings waren die vergebenen Landstücke einfach zu klein, um hiermit den Lebensunterhalt gut bestreiten zu können. Die Armut der Bevölkerung nahm immer weiter zu, was auch die Inflation beschleunigte. Im April 1946 musste die Notenbank erstmals die Währungsbezeichnung Milpengö in Umlauf bringen. Ein Milpengö entsprach einer Million Pengö. Ab Juni 1946 ging man dann zu B.-Pengö (Billion-Pengö) über. Durch die enorme Inflation war es vielen Menschen nicht mehr möglich, die alltäglichen Lebensmittel zu finanzieren. Sie gingen wieder zum ehemaligen Tauschhandel über, Steuern und Abgaben hingegen wurden mit dem Steuer-Pengö finanziert.

Die Zeit nach der Inflation
Um die Inflation in Ungarn in den Griff zu bekommen, wurde am 01. August 1946 der ungarische Forit eingeführt. Der Umtauschkurs wurde zentral festgelegt, wobei ein Forit etwa 200 Millionen Adopengö (200.000.000 Pengö) entsprach. Altes Geld konnte dabei bis September 1946 umgetauscht werden. Mit der Einführung des Forit und der gleichzeitigen Geldentwertung war es Ungarn möglich, die Hyperinflation zu beenden. Das Land konnte wieder eine normale Wirtschaftspolitik betreiben und die Landwirtschaft fördern. Nach und nach konnten auch die Menschen in Ungarn wieder Vermögen und einen angemessenen Lebensstandard aufbauen.

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