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Goldschätze der Geschichte

Gold und Goldschätze faszinieren die Menschen. Mythen, Legenden und Sagen ranken sich um zahlreiche verborgene Schätze, in den Überlieferungen und Archiven gibt es tausende von Hinweisen auf versunkene Schatzschiffe sowie verschollene und versteckte Reichtümer. Ebenso viele Berichte finden sich über Schatzfunde, Funde von großen und bedeutenden Goldschätzen bis hin einzelnen Münzfunden auf dem Acker hinter dem Haus. Archäologen, Historiker, Schatzsucher und Abenteurer jagen den verlorenen Schätzen hinterher, teilweise mit gewaltigem und riskantem Kapitaleinsatz. Börsennotierte Schatzsuchunternehmen versuchen die großen, noch verborgenen Schätze zu finden und zu bergen.

Das Grab Tutanchamuns
1922 entdeckte Howard Carter im Tal der Könige bei Luxor das Grab des Königs Tutanchamuns. Bei der Graböffnung am 16. Februar 1923 fand man neben der Mumie des Königs zahlreiche kostbare Grabbeigaben, viele davon aus Gold. Das berühmteste Fundstück ist die goldene Totenmaske des Königs Tutanchamun. Neben dem Sarg wurden ein goldener Schrein, große Wächterstatuen und ein Thron gefunden. Viele dieser Schätze könne heute im Ägyptischen Museum in Kairo bewundert werden. Im Tal der Könige wurden bis heute zahlreiche weitere Felsengräber entdeckt, und die Suche nach weiteren Gräbern ist noch nicht beendet.

Der Schatz von Troja
Der Amateurarchäologe Heinrich Schliemann legte in den Jahren 1871 bis 1879 im Nordwesten der Türkei Teile der legendären Stadt Troja frei. Seinen bedeutendsten Fund machte er am 31. Mai 1873, als er unter Mauerresten den von ihm so genannten „Schatz des Priamos“ fand. Dieser Schatz bestand aus goldenen Vasen, Amphoren, Diademen, Ringen, Stirnbändern und zahlreichem anderen Goldschmuck. Schliemann schenkte den Schatz dem neu eröffneten Museum für Völkerkunde in Berlin. In den Kriegsjahren nach 1941 gelangte der Schatz als Beutekunst in das Puschkin Museum in Moskau, wo er erst 1987 wieder entdeckt wurde und seit 1994 wieder in der Ausstellung zu sehen ist.

Der Schatz von Staffordshire
Im Jahr 2009 fand Terry Herbert mit seiner Metallsonde auf einem Acker in der Grafschaft Staffordshire in England einen Schatz aus der Zeit der Angelsachsen. Mehr als 1.500 Stücke fanden sich, darunter insgesamt 5 Kilogramm Gold.

Die „S.S. Republic“
Nach 12-jähriger Suche fanden die beiden Schatztaucher John Morris und Greg Stemm im Jahr 2003 vor der Küste von Georgia in 516 Metern Tiefe das Wrack der S.S.Republic. Goldmünzen im Wert von 150 Millionen Dollar wurden in dem Wrack vermutet. Gesunken war die Republic am 18. Oktober 1865 auf dem Weg von New York nach New Orleans in einem Hurrikan. 59 Passagiere wurden gerettet, die Ladung, darunter ca. 20.000 Goldmünzen, gingen mit dem 70 Meter langen Schiff unter. Mitte Oktober 2003 wurde die Schiffsglocke gefunden und damit den Beweis, dass es sich um die SS Republic handelt.

Die „Nuestra Senora de Atocha“
1980 entdeckte der amerikanische Schatzsucher Mel Fischer das Wrack der spanischen Galeone “Santa Margarita”, 1985 das Wrack des Schwesterschiffs “Nuestra Senora de Atocha”. Die zwei Schiffe waren im September 1622 in einem Hurrikan vor Key West gesunken. Fischer holte mit seinem Bergungsteam Gold, Silber und Edelsteine im Wert von 400 Millionen Dollar aus den beiden Wracks.

Der Schatz von Hiddensee
Bei zwei schweren Sturmfluten in den Jahren 1872 und 1874 wurden Teile der Dünen auf der Insel Hiddensee in der Ostsee fortgespült. An der Westküste der Insel wurden danach 16 goldene Schmuckstücke aus dem 10. Jahrhundert gefunden, der vermutlich mit Wikingern aus Dänemark auf die Insel kam.

Der Goldschatz von Vettersfelde
1882 wurden durch Zufall bei Vettersfelde im südlichen Brandenburg ein Anhänger einer geflochtenen Kette, ein massiver Halsreif, eine Schwertscheide mit Tiermustern und ein goldener Fisch, 608 Gramm schwer, gefunden. Der Fisch ist eine Arbeit aus Griechenland, die Funde sind vermutlich Grabbeigaben eines skythischen Fürsten.

Legendäre Goldschätze:

Der Schatz im Baikalsee
Der Legende nach zogen im Winter 1919/20 Soldaten im russischen Bürgerkrieg einen Zug über den zugefrorenen Baikalsee. Beladen soll dieser Zug mit dem Staatsschatz der Zaren gewesen sein. Auf 80 Waggons waren Goldbarren und Münzen in 5143 Kisten und 1678 Säcken verteilt. Der Gesamtwert der Ladung soll bei ca. 650 Millionen Rubel gelegen haben. An diesem Tag herrschen Temperaturen um 60 Grad Minus, die Soldaten waren auf der Flucht und der Weg über den zugefrorenen See war kürzer als der Schienenweg um den See herum. Während der Überquerung brachen Teile des Zuges durch die Eisdecke des Baikalsees und versanken mit der Ladung. Insgesamt sollte der Zug 180 Tonnen Gold geladen haben. Im Juli 2008 wurden während einer Erforschung der Pflanzen- und Tierwelt im Baikalsee stark deformierte Waggons gefunden. Die Ladung ist bisher nicht gefunden worden.

Der Schatz im Toplitzsee
Im April 1945 ließ der Chef des Reichssicherheithauptamts, SS Obergruppenführer Ernst Kaltenbrunner den sog. Nazischatz in Munitionskisten verschweißen und von Berlin nach Österreich transportieren. In 50 Kisten sollen 2.000 Kilogramm Goldbarren, in weiteren 47 Kisten waren Goldmünzen, Brillanten, Feingold, Briefmarken und Beutegut aus jüdischem Besitz verstaut gewesen sein. Im Toplitzsee, inmitten eines damaligen Raketentestgebiets, wurden die Kisten versteckt. Bei zahlreichen Tauchexpeditionen sind bisher keine Kisten gefunden worden, wohl aber Munition und Flugzeugteile.

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