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Libertad Goldmünze

Foto der Vorderseite einer Libertad GoldmünzeLibertad Gold Vorderseite
Foto der Rückseite einer Libertad GoldmünzeLibertad Gold Rückseite

Der Libertad Gold existiert in drei Ausführungen und wurde erstmalig im Jahr 1981 in Mexiko in der Casa de Moneda de México geprägt. Diese Münzprägeanstalt ist die älteste in ganz Nord- und Südamerika. Seit 1535 werden dort Münzen geprägt. Allgemein wird die Münze meist nur als Libertad bezeichnet, obwohl die Abgrenzung zur Silbermünze desselben Namens eigentlich notwendig wäre. Die erste Libertad wird häufig auch „Onza“ genannt, welches das spanische Wort für „Unze“ ist. Gerade in der Literatur wird dieser ältere Begriff recht oft genutzt.

NennwertMünzgewichtFeingoldMaterialpreis*AbmessungFeinheit
ohne, ab 1981
1 Unze
34.5 g31.103 g1.495,09 €
(1.752,69 $)
Ø 34,50 mm
x 2,50 mm
999 ‰
ohne, ab 1981
1/2 Unze
17.3 g15.55 g747,47 €
(876,26 $)
Ø 29,00 mm
x 1,76 mm
999 ‰
ohne, ab 1981
1/4 Unze
8.6 g7.78 g373,98 €
(438,41 $)
Ø 23,00 mm
x 1,40 mm
999 ‰
ohne, ab 1991
1 Unze
31.103 g31.103 g1.495,09 €
(1.752,69 $)
Ø 34,50 mm
x 2,10 mm
999 ‰
ohne, ab 1991
1/2 Unze
15.532 g15.532 g746,61 €
(875,25 $)
Ø 29,00 mm
x 1,75 mm
999 ‰
ohne, ab 1991
1/4 Unze
7.776 g7.776 g373,78 €
(438,19 $)
Ø 23,00 mm
x 1,32 mm
999 ‰
ohne, ab 1991
1/10 Unze
3.11 g3.11 g149,49 €
(175,25 $)
Ø 16,00
x 1,00 mm
999 ‰
ohne, ab 1991
1/2 Unze
1.55 g1.55 g74,51 €
(87,34 $)
Ø 13 mm
x 0,83 mm
999 ‰

Die Forderseite der Libertad Gold-Münzen wird von der Siegesgöttin Libertad geschmückt, was übersetzt „Freiheit“ bedeutet. Im Hintergrund der Siegesgöttin befinden sich zwei Berge, von denen der eine der Berg Iztaccíhuatl und der andere der Vulkan Popocatépetl ist. Beide gehen auf eine mexikanische Sage zurück. Auf der Rückseite befindet sich schließlich das mexikanische Landeswappen.

Unterschiede zu späteren Versionen der Libertad Gold sind vor allem darin zu finden, dass die Göttin Libertad nicht auf einem Sockel steht und sich die Jahreszahl der Prägung auf der rechten Seite befindet. Das Feingewicht der Münze ist stattdessen auf die linke Seite der Münze gewichen. Bemerkenswert ist außerdem die Tatsache, dass kein Nennwert auf der Münze abgedruckt ist. Dennoch ist sie als offizielles Zahlungsmittel in Mexiko gestattet, wenn auch nicht sehr verbreitet. Händler sind dennoch verpflichtet, die Libertad Gold anzunehmen.

Die erste Auflage der Münze wurde in 1, ½ und ¼ Unzen geprägt. Die schwerste Variante mit 31,1 Gramm Gold wurde mit 175.000 Exemplaren bedacht, von den anderen beiden, jeweils 15,5 und 7,8 Gramm wiegenden Münzen wurden jeweils 360.000 Stück geprägt. In den folgenden Jahren wurden 1985 und 1988 nur die 1-Unzen-Versionen geprägt, die letzte Auflage folgte im Jahr 1989. Bei diesen Münzen liegt der Goldanteil bei nur 90%, die restlichen 10% bestehen aus Silber. Der große Durchmesser von bis zu 34,5 Millimetern macht den Gold Libertad außerdem zu einer der größten Anlagemünzen überhaupt.

Zehn Jahre nach der ersten Libertad Gold wurde eine zweite Version der Münze geprägt. Diese unterscheidet sich durch eine höhere Feinheit mit 999 zu 1000 Gold anstelle von 900 zu 1000 bis in das Jahr 1989 und einen leicht höheren Durchmesser der Münzen. Neben den üblichen Varianten in der Größe von 1, ½ und ¼ Unze gibt es vom Libertad Gold I und II auch Versionen mit 1/10 Unze und 1/20 Unze. Bei Letzterer beläuft sich der Goldanteil auf nur noch 1,555 Gramm.

Die zweite Version des Libertad Gold wurde zwischen den Jahren 1991 und 1994 hergestellt mit einer deutlich besseren Prägequalität. Die Unterschiede zur ersten Version sind vor allem im Tausch der Platzierungen der Jahreszahl und der Aufschrift „de Oro Puro“ zu finden. Der Jahrgang wanderte unter die Abbildung der Siegesgöttin Libertad und wird von einer Bezeichnung des Feinheitsgrades begleitet. Die Rückseite blieb unverändert. Die Libertad Gold II brachte es nur auf eine Auflage von bis zu 75.000 Stück für die 1-Unzen-Version.

1996 erschien schließlich die Libertad Gold III, die bis heute aktuell ist. Die Göttin Libertad steht nun auf einem Sockel, der rechte Arm wurde von seinem Lorbeerkranz erleichtert und alle relevanten Daten zur Münze sind am Rand der oberen Hälfte der Münze zu finden. Die Rückseite des Libertad Gold III weicht nur in der großen 1-Unzen-Variante ab. Dort sind neben dem Nationalwappen Mexikos zehn weitere Wappen zu finden, die in kreisförmig am Rand der Münze angeordnet sind.

Seit 2007 wird der Libertad Gold in seiner dritten Ausführung auch auf dem deutschen Markt als Anlegermünze angeboten. Der Goldanteil beträgt dabei bis zu 31,103 Gramm für die größte Münze.

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